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From the Instituto Tecnológico de la Energía (ITE) we have the objective of facilitating the process of sustainable and efficient energy transition to companies and society.


Development of sustainable Si/C anodes by screen-printing techniques, integration of cells with commercial components and modeling of electrochemical, thermal and electrical behaviour for lithium batteries


The SINCLAIR project aims to improve the properties of lithium-ion batteries by developing sustainable Si/C-based anodes using the screen-printing technique, a novel technique in this field. In addition, the integration and validation of graphite and Si/C cells with commercial materials, as well as the use of modeling techniques to evaluate the electrochemical and thermal behaviour of the cells and to reproduce the electrical behaviour due to polarization phenomena, will be carried out.

This project is aligned with the European roadmaps where Generation 3 batteries are identified as the next technology to break into the energy storage market. This battery technology is based on the incorporation of silicon anodes because of the high capacity they provide. In addition, the project’s focus on obtaining sustainable anodes from waste represents a step towards the circular economy.


Obtaining a sustainable Si/C based anode from waste, which will be subsequently modified, adapted and integrated in the formulation of an anode for lithium cells, using the silk-screen printing technique.

Integration and assembly of cells with commercial materials. Graphite anode cells will be integrated to serve as reference and Si/C based anode cells with an approximate capacity of 500mAh.

Evaluation of the electrochemical and thermal behaviour of graphite and graphite-silicon anodes, using finite element models from the integration of graphite and Si/C cells and evaluation of the electrical behaviour of the battery to faithfully reproduce the polarization curve of batteries in order to achieve extended life and charging efficiency



Documentos descarga SINCLAIR
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  • Sustainable Si/C-based anode printed by screen printing 
  • Si/C anode developed with electrochemical response at the half-cell level. 
  • 500mAh commercial Si/C graphite and Si/C cells 
  • Electrochemical and thermal model at the cell level for the study of the behaviour of graphite and Si/C cells. 
  • Cell-level electrical model to reproduce the polarization curve of the battery that induce potential drops during charge and discharge cycles 

2021 Results 

  • Evaluation, selection and characterization of wastes and biomasses to obtain Si/C anodes for lithium ion batteries. 
  • Study of the production processes of Si/C anodes for lithium ion batteries from rice husks. 
  • Physicochemical characterization of silicon and active materials for batteries. 
  • Integration and electrochemical characterization of an NMC811/graphite coin cell and an LFP/graphite pouch cell 
  • Electrochemical behaviour model of NMC811/graphite single cell. 
  • Analysis of polarization phenomena, selection, design and parameterization of equivalent circuit model of electrical behaviour. 

2022 Results 

  • Si-based anode materials and sustainable Si/C composites from high-ash waste by pyrolytic processes. 
  • Development and validation of Si and sustainable Si-based anodes for advanced generation lithium-ion batteries produced by screen-printing 
  • Validation of multilayer pouch-type graphite/NMC811 and Si-C/NMC811 500mAh cells 
  • Single-cell electrochemical behaviour model for graphite and Si/C anodes and its experimental validation. 
  • Experimental validation of the thermal model developed for the analysis of heating and cooling at the cell level 
  • Cell electrical behaviour model for simulating transient stages associated with polarization phenomena 





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